As a young teenager, Cassio Audi and his friends Andre Matos, Felipe Machad, Pit Passarell, and Yves Passarell started the band that would eventually become Viper. Their inspiration came from the iconic sound of the British heavy metal bands of the ‘70s and 80’s. Just prior to becoming Viper, the band released a very well received demo called “Killer Sword.” This included now famous rock songs like “Killera,” “The Princess from Hell, and “The Nightmare.” Not long afterward it officially became Viper in 1985, with Audi playing with them until 1989. As a drummer for the Brazilian heavy metal band, Viper, Cassio Audi played an instrumental role in creating the unique sound of Brazilian ‘80s rock.

During those years Brazilian drummers were huge. The three biggest at this time: Cassio Audi, Jean Dolabella, and Ivan Busic. However, while those three were the biggest, the Brazilian rock scene was full of extremely influential drummers during these years. In 1987 the band released its first official album, “Soldiers of Sunrise.” Although Audi was replaced after he left, he made himself irreplaceable by taking Viper to iconic status and being the most influential person in Brazilian ’80 heavy metal. His work paved the way and was incredibly influential for many Brazilian bands that came in the years afterward.

These great rock bands include Torture Squad, Holocausto, Hibria, Chakal, and Rebaelliun. In 1989, Audi decided to make the world of finances his future. So he left to get an education in finances. He has since been extremely successful in this area.

Genetic science may have solved one of the most complicated questions surrounding the origins of Native American peoples in terms of groups that live in northern regions, such as Canada, as opposed to those populating the far southern regions of the South American continent.


For years, scientists have generally agreed that all Native people in North and South America are descended from the same group who migrated from Siberia into the Americas over the so-called “land bridge.” The land bridge was engulfed by the ocean at the end of the Ice Age some 10,000 years ago.


But there seemed to be troubling differences, archaeologically and culturally speaking, between Indians of the northern plains and those who went south to become the Inca, the Maya and other well-established southern groups.


Researchers recently completed a 91% genome study based on DNA recovered from the remains of people who lived some 4,800 years ago. What the data shows is that all indigenous people in North and South America were originally one group — but that a split occurred more than 13,000 years ago.


One group spread out through the northern regions and another populated southern regions, but then centuries later, a certain amount of re-intermingling between the two populations occurred


The importance of these findings is that they show a much more complex dynamic for how Native American populations established themselves in the New World. It provides a much clearer picture of how and why today’s Northern Native American tribes are related to — but different — from those cultures established in South and Central America.

There, There is a novel that highlights and explores the struggles of modern-day Native Americans through a wide array of unique individuals (twelve, to be exact), each with problems and missions of their own. Tommy Orange, the author, sought to reflect many of the mixed thoughts and feelings he had growing up, in his writing, to make his characters struggle the way he did in a way to accurately depict the ambivalent nature of his own identity, of his peoples’ identity.


According to the New York Times, Tommy Orange is an Oakland native and is a member of the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes. In his mostly-white high school, he was often mistaken for being Chinese and Mexican, and bullied because of his apparent ethnicity. His father was a Cheyenne Native American (and a Native American Church ceremony leader, at that) and his mother, a wanderlust white woman who was spiritual. His parents clashed over religious values when his mother converted to Christianity, and this brought on dreadful feelings concerning the end of days and eternal hellfire when he was just a boy. This would serve as inspiration for his writing, in part. There, There has been honored by famous writers such as Margaret Atwood and Pam Houston, and he is said to be part of a new generation of indigenous writers who are reshaping Native American literature. Joshua Whitehead and Tommy Pico are just a couple names from these ranks.


Ultimately, Tommy Orange wants native voices to spread, to be heard, just as others are.

Cleveland has the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Oklahoma City has the Cowboy Hall of Fame and Nashville has the Country Music Hall of Fame — and now Native Americans will have a hall of fame of their own.


The idea was the brainchild of James Parker Shield, a member of the Little Shell Chippewa and Cree Tribes. Retired at the time, Shield was inspired to get the ball rolling on creating a National Native American Hall of Fame 10 years ago. Now after a decade of hard work, his project is on the verge of becoming a reality.


A physical location has yet to be selected for the future location, but a ceremony announcing the official creation and launch of the Native American Hall of fame project will take place at the Phoenix Indian School Memorial Hall in Arizona next October. It is expected that the first 20 inductees into the Hall — both living and deceased — will be announced at this inaugural event.


Native Americans can be nominated to the Hall under 14 categories which includes arts, entertainment, science, advocacy, athletics and more.


Liz Hill of Minnesota’s Red Lake Ojibwe is the chairman of the Native American Hall of Fame Board of Directors. She said one of the purposes of the facility will be to “honor the inspirational achievements” of contemporary Native American people as well as recognize great figures from the past.


Plans also call for a traveling exhibit that will bring an educational curriculum to young people across the nation. It will tout the many achievements and contributions Native Americans have made to the world in modern times.